After the publication of the British “White Paper” in May 1939, which limited
the number of Jewish immigrants allowed to enter Palestine to 75,000 for five
years; 25,000 immediately and 10,000 per year following, the Mandatory
Government built the Atlit camp – a detention camp near Atlit (15km south of
Haifa) for holding illegal immigrants who were captured trying to enter the
country. The number of detainees who were released from the camp was deducted
from the general yearly quota. This camp was run by the British until the State
of Israel was created in 1948.
During WW-II, 34 voyages of Aliya Bet –
the organized clandestine immigration of Jews to Eretz Israel during the British
mandate of Palestine – brought about 17,000 ma’apilim (illegal immigrants) to
Eretz Israel, from ports in the Black Sea. The ma'apilim were detained in the
Atlit camp until they were freed in accordance with the monthly quota (with the
exception of 1,750 ma'apilim who were deported for a lengthy detention to the
remote island of Mauritius).
After WW-II ended, attempts of clandestine immigration to Eretz Israel by Jewish
refugees and Holocaust survivors from Europe surged dramatically. From Jan. to
Jul. 1946, 10,200 ma’apilim were interned in Atlit. They arrived on 11 Aliya Bet
vessels that failed to run the British blockade. In Aug. 1946 the British
changed their policy and began to deport the ma’apilim to detention camps in Cyprus.
Between Aug. 1946 and Apr. 1948, 52,500 ma’apilim were deported to Cyprus, of
which 30,000 were freed by the British and brought to Palestine as their quota
allotment came due (the quota was increased to 1,500 per month after WW-II
ended). The process of liberating the refugees was concluded in the Atlit camp
(the rest of the Cyprus detainees, most of those of draft age, were liberated
only after the State of Israel had come into being).
Two events related to the Atlit Camp are particularly worth mentioning:
(1) October 10th 1945: In a daring raid of the 1st Company of the Palmach under the command of Nachum Sarig, all the inmates of the camp were set free. This act signaled the beginning of the
armed struggle of the Palmach against the British which lasted until the summer of 1947. Click here for the report by Yoske Yariv (Rivkind) about the
raid (Yitzhak Rabin – Israel’s 5th Prime Minister who was assassinated in 1995 – was the commander of one of the two
platoons that took part in this operation; the commander of the 2nd platoon was Nechemia Shein who was killed 9 months later in
the Night Of The Bridges Operation).
(2) June 29th 1946 – “Black Sabbath”: following the British search for members of the Palmach and their weapons in Yagur and Sdot Yam, all those who had been captured were first moved to
the Atlit camp. After few days of interrogation they were transferred to the detention camp in Rafiah (The Aliya Bet vessel ‘Wedgwood’ was intercepted at the very same time, and her
ma’apilim were detained in a temporary tent camp adjacent to the Atlit Camp; they remained there until those arrested in the Black Saturday were released or transferred out of the Atlit Camp,
thus “making room” for them). Click here for Yehuda Ben-tzur's story of that
After the State of Israel was established, the Atlit camp became a temporary
shelter for the absorption of new immigrants and served as such until 1970. In
1986 the Council for the Preservation of Old Buildings and Settlements (a
government agency) took upon itself to reconstruct the neglected site and the
following year it was declared a “National Heritage Landmark”.
The purpose of the site is educational: to tell the story of Aliya Bet. Several
of the old buildings, such as the decontamination building and several of the
barracks were cleaned and restored and other objects were added to make the camp
appear as it had been when in use. There is a library there dedicated to the
subject of Aliya Bet. Special mention should be made of computerized database
which contain the names of many of the ma’apilim. For a small entrance fee one
can visit the camp and tour it on his/her own or join a guided tour.
The Society for Preservation of Israel Heritage Sites – the government agency
which maintains the camp – purchased and brought to the site a small ship
similar to a typical small Aliya Bet vessel, and built an exhibit inside it. The offices of the camp may be contacted by phone: (04)984-1980.
The entrance to the Atlit Camp National Heritage Landmark
A guided tour in the Atlit Camp National Heritage Landmark
The Israeli stamp issued in 2014, featuring the Atlit Camp National Heritage Landmark